Eltel’s power transmission business wins a EUR 13 million substation contract with E.ON in Sweden
Eltel has won a contract for a full rebuild of the two substations Söderåsen and Mörarp of E.ON Elnät Sverige AB. The value of this contract is approximately EUR 13 million. This contract is an important further step for Eltel’s ambitions in the Swedish and Nordic substation markets.
The substation contract is a turnkey project for Eltel comprising design, supply of all equipment, civil works, installation and commissioning as well as decommissioning of the existing substations. Besides the rebuild of the 130 kV substations, there is a step-by-step energisation scheme where existing parts of the substations are phased out and new parts are phased in. This step-by-step energisation scheme is critical in order to maintain and guarantee uninterrupted operation of the vital substations.
Fredrik Menander, President – Power Transmission, Eltel AB comments:
“The decision of E.ON in Sweden to choose us as the prime contractor in the rebuild of these two substations is a major win for Eltel. We are now taking an additional strategic step in consolidating our position in the Swedish and Nordic substation markets. We are looking forward to good cooperation and efficient project execution together with E.ON”.
Schneider Electric gets its highest score ever in the 2016 Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World ranking by Corporate Knights
The Group ranks 12th overall and 1st in its sector.
Schneider Electric has been recognized as one of the 2016 Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World, coming 12th overall and 1st in its GICS Industry. It’s the fourth year running the Group ranks among the top 15 corporations in the sustainability index by Corporate Knights, the magazine for clean capitalism, released every year at the World Economic Forum in Davos.
Companies who make the Global 100 ranking are the top overall sustainability performers in their respective industrial sectors, selected from a starting universe of 4,353 listed companies with a market capitalization greater than $2 billion (USD) on October 1, 2015. Schneider Electric ranks first its sector and is among the 11 French companies listed. The Global 100 is determined using 12 quantitative sustainability indicators, as the amount of revenue companies generate per unit of energy consumed for example.
Jean-Pascal Tricoire, Chairman & CEO, Schneider Electric commented, “With overall score up to 70.5% in 2016 from 68.4% in 2015, we have achieved our best Global 100 score ever, ranking 1st in our sector and demonstrating our commitment to put sustainable development at the heart of our strategy. Even so, we’ve dropped three places in the global ranking, which means that the overall standards have risen. That’s great news for everyone and invitation to increase our efforts.”
ENEL Green Power enters the German market
Enel Green Power (“EGP”) has taken its first step into the German renewable energy market with the acquisition of a 78.6% stake in Erdwärme Oberland GmbH (“EO”) from Erdwärme Bayern GmbH & Co. (“EB”), a company specialised in the development of geothermal projects in the Bavarian region. The acquisition was carried out through the issue of new shares in EO for a total consideration of 22 million euros, covering the initial investment requirements of the project.
With this transaction, EGP, the Enel Group company devoted to renewable energy, enters the German market, bringing with it the most advanced technology and a century-long experience in the field of geothermal power.
“This acquisition is very significant because it opens the door for Enel Green Power to a major, stable renewable energy market such as Germany” said Francesco Venturini, CEO of EGP. “The transaction demonstrates the Group’s ability to keep pace with market developments and quickly enter new countries, leveraging its global presence and experience to seize new market opportunities. We intend to build a solid platform for future investment opportunities in the country, both in geothermal power and in other sectors, contributing to achieving the target for the share of renewables in the European energy mix.”
EO has recently developed a project for the construction of a geothermal plant with a maximum expected capacity of about 26 MW. The project, located near the town of Weilheim, about 50 km south-west of Munich, will be developed under a mineral exploration concession granted by the Bavarian Ministry for Economic Affairs, Media, Energy and Technology valid for 3 years from December 2015 and in consultation with local communities. EO will begin with geological exploration activities in 2016.
Duke Energy Renewables racks up more than 600 megawatts of wind and solar power in 2015, with completion of Los Vientos V
Duke Energy Renewables, a commercial business unit of Duke Energy, ended 2015 with a flurry, completing its 110-megawatt (MW) Los Vientos V Windpower Project in Starr County, Texas.
With this site on line as of late December, the business added 400 MW of wind and 200 MW of solar power to its U.S. renewables portfolio in 2015.
“We’ve come a long way since we constructed our first 29-MW wind site in 2008,” said Greg Wolf, president Duke Energy Commercial Portfolio. “The company surpassed the 2,000-MW milestone just six months ago, and we’ve continued to accelerate renewables growth to a year-end total approaching 2,500 MW.”
“This is a remarkable accomplishment for our renewables business, which has demonstrated consistent growth over its eight-year history,” said Lynn Good, Duke Energy chairman, president and chief executive officer. “As we look forward, continued growth is important as Duke Energy transitions to an increasingly clean generation portfolio.”
Garland Power & Light, Greenville Electric Utility System and Bryan Texas Utilities (BTU) are purchasing the output from Los Vientos V through 25-year agreements. The facility produces enough emissions-free electricity to power about 33,000 average homes.
Fortum – Energy for everyday life through well-being at work
Employees are the company’s most important resource, and we invest in well-being at work in many ways.
Well-being wheelWorkplace well-being efforts are visible in Fortum’s daily operations; these efforts support our strategic goals and are an integral part of management. Fortum’s own ForCare well-being at work programme aims to promote work safety, support the working capacity of employees throughout their career, and promote the well-being of the work community. We have a strategic and comprehensive approach to well-being at work.
Managing well-being at work has a clear impact on the company’s competitiveness. When the well-being of employees is good, productivity increases and work disabilities and the costs associated with them decrease. The well-being at work programme encourages and supports our employees to take care of their physical, mental and social health and their work-life balance.
From 2016 onwards employee well-being index is one of the Group-level sustainability key performance indicators, and its development is monitored regularly.
Vattenfall – The first decommission in the world of an offshore wind farm is now complete
Vattenfall’s Yttre Stengrund wind farm has disappeared from the horizon in Kalmar Sound, Sweden.
Work on dismantling the five wind turbines with a total capacity of 10 megawatt (MW) which made up the Yttre Stengrund wind farm in Kalmar Sound began at the end of November. The wind farm had been in operation since 2001 and had been owned by Vattenfall since 2006. The reason for the decision to dismantle the entire wind farm rather than replacing the turbines with new, more modern ones was both financial and technical.
“The turbines that were installed at Yttre Stengrund were an early model and only about 50 of them in total were actually produced. The difficulty of getting hold of spare parts and the huge cost involved in upgrading the turbines and gearboxes meant that it wasn’t financially viable to replace the turbines,” says Maria Hassel, who project managed the dismantling operation for Vattenfall.
Thüga Group: Electricity-to-Gas technology is compatible with smart grid .
“A decisive step has been made with the integration of our system into a virtual smart grid. We proved that the intelligent electricity-to-gas technology can distinguish the difference between electricity generation and consumption up to the minute,” said Michael Riechel, CEO of Thüga Aktiengesellschaft.
This autumn, the 13 partners of electricity-to-gas plant had first tested how the system behaves in an increasingly renewables dominated energy landscape. For this purpose, the Fraunhofer Institute had developed software for real-time control for Solar Energy Systems. During the live operation Thüga electricity-to-gas plant, wind and solar plants, a cogeneration (CHP) and the power consumption in computer simulations have been connected together in a virtual smart grid.
The electricity-to-gas plant started automatically the conversion into hydrogen when too much current was available. When the electricity demand was higher than the supply the connected CHP used the stored hydrogen for reconversion. The intelligent control software carried out this process automatically. “This result is crucial to leverage the electricity-to-gas technology for storing more abundant energy, because it serves its purpose only when it automatically responds to the constantly changing conditions between production and consumption,” explains Riechel. Today the integration of the ever-growing proportion of wind and solar power into the existing power supply is difficult; also due to their supply fluctuates. Nowadays the electricity surplus must be increasingly switched off, because there is not enough storage available. Only with sufficient intelligent storage systems for renewable electricity the energy transition can succeed.
Read more (in German)…
Oracle – CLK Enerji Selects Oracle Utilities for Business Transformation
Largest energy utility inTurkey will deliver a more modern and flexible Meter to Cash customer experience
CLK Enerji, Turkey’s largest energy utility, has selected Oracle Utilities solutions to transform and modernize its billing systems and improve service quality for its customers across all areas of its business.
With the changing landscape of the Turkish energy market, new demands are being placed on the country’s utilities requiring them to develop more customer-centric services and adapt their operations for the digital age. In a move designed to lower operating costs, increase accuracy and streamline its customer operations, CLK Enerji is implementing Oracle Utilities Customer Care & Billing (CC&B) and Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management (MDM) to deliver a more flexible, performing service to its growing base of energy and cost-conscious customers.
CLK Enerji serves nearly 10 million customers in Turkey and boasts an annual electricity distribution and sales strength of 46 billion kWh. With Oracle Utilities solutions, the company will build on its market-leading capabilities and deliver a new standard of excellence for energy management and customer service.
LINZ AG – Success Story: Ten years biomass cogeneration plant in Linz
Ten year ago LINZ AG started a pioneering role in sustainable energy production. In January 2006 she opened the first biomass power plant in Austria. This biomass plant was integrated into the then renewed District heating power plant Linz-Mitte. Ten years later, it can be reported as a genuine success story.
Significant reduction of CO2 emissions
The biomass system makes a significant contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions in Linz. The emission of CO2 has been reduced by approximately 60.000 tonnes per year, based on a comparison with natural gas. This corresponds to an annual CO2 emission of a car, driving 300 million kilometres or rounds the earth almost 7,500 times.
Renewable raw material
Only untreated wood is used as fuel. The plant is designed for a wide range of natural biomass fuels such as bark, wood chips and untreated wood residues. The LINZ AG relies mainly on partners from the Austrian forest-based industries. Around 70 percent of the wood comes from a radius of up to 150 km (z. B. Mühlviertel, Upper Austria or Mid- Alps).
Environmentally friendly energy for 32.000 households
The biomass plant produces around 60.000 MWh of electricity from biomass. This corresponds to the electrical energy need for approximately 20.000 households in the city of Linz. In addition, approximately 180.000 MWh of heat is supplied in the district heating network. This amount of energy can supply around 12.000 households with heat. This means that LINZ AG generates around 17% of the district heat from biomass, with the most efficient energy utilisation: combined heat and power (joint production of heat and electricity in a plant) with 90% performance.
Read more (in German)…
Alliander – Durable and circular Cooperation between Dutch DSO’s
Enexis, Gasunie, Alliander, Stedin TenneT (energy), KPN (telecom & ICT) and ProRail (Dutch railway infrastructure) have launched ‘Fair Infra. Via the platform “Green Grids” these seven Dutch infrastructure operators will cooperate to reduce energy consumption and emission, by commonly purchasing renewable energy, durable materials, which can be re-used, for construction, operation and maintenance of networks. The ambition was signed at the Dutch Power Symposium in Bunnik.
These DSO’s have identified five issues on which they will work together:
- Energy saving in their companies,
- Re-use of recycled cables, pipes, and railway track,
- The use of green energy,
- Green IT Fair
- To use common infrastructure, where possible.
“The Dutch Energy Agency is very excited about this step. Given the size of all these infrastructure operators, it will directly contribute to lower CO2 emissions in the Netherlands,” said Michel Schuurman, program manager Circular Economy in the Energy Agency. ” Towards an innovative, circular economy these hugh investments will bring us major steps forwards.”
Reduction of their own energy consumption and the use of durable materials
The seven operators will work together to reduce their regular energy consumption significantly. They will do so by using more renewable energy and by more efficient energy transmission over their networks. ProRail already generates electricity from PV-panels situated on the roofs of the railway stations. KPN and TenneT buy green power for their operations from wind farms. Gasunie succeed transporting gas flows more efficiently by reducing the heating in the networks.
Alliander and Stedin took the initiative for the “Fair Meter Project”, re-using materials from old energy meters. Part of these materials can be re-used by the other infrastructure operators, for instance in the construction of railway tracks. Enexis focuses on sustainability for the procurement of cables and reduction of technical network losses. All parties will re-use materials for infrastructure such as cables, pipelines and stations as much as posssible.
Dutch government as a partner
The Dutch Government, as a contact point for climate and circular economy is an important partner to achieve the goals in this Mission Statement. In 2016 the participating infrastructure operators and the Dutch National government will further formalise this cooperation during the 2016 “Fair Infra” conference in the Netherlands. More about this partnership can be found www.groenenetten.org. The platform green networks is part of Ambition 2020 and supported as such by the Dutch Energy Agency.
Read more (in Dutch)…
Meet OSGP and its members at the following events
- 03-04 Feb. 2016; E&P Information and Data Management in London, UK
- 03-04 Feb. 2016; Energy Storage 2016 in Paris, France
- 22-24 Feb. 2016; Smart Energy Summit in Austin TX, USA
- 02-04 March 2016; World Smart Energy Week in Tokyo, Japan
- 07-08 March 2016; European Cyber Security in London, UK
- 08-09 March 2016; Asia Pacific Smart Cities Forum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
- 15-16 March 2016; Power & Electricity World Africa in Johannesburg, South Africa
- 22-23 March 2016; InnoGrid 2020+ “Digital Energy” conference in Brussels, Belgium
- 05-06 April 2016; Grid Analytics Europe 2016 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 05-07 April 2016; Smart Cities & Energy Efficiency in Sofia, Bulgaria
- 13-14 April 2016; Power & Electricity World Asia in Jakarta, Indonesia
- 20-21 April 2016; ICSG Istanbul 2016, Turkey
- 09-11 May 2016; CIGRE & IEC – 2nd Int. Colloquium on EHV an UHV
- 11-13 May 2016; 2nd Smart Cities India 2016 in New Delhi, India
- 17-19 May 2016; African Utility Week 2016 in Cape Town, South Africa
- 17-19 May June 2016; Power & Electricity World Philippines in Manila, Philippines
- 13-16 June 2016; Nigeria Power Conference & Exhibition in Abuja, Nigeria
- 16-17 June 2016; Innovative City 2016 in Nice, France
- 30 June – 1 July 2016; Power Distribution & Metering West Africa in Abuja, Nigeria
- 15-17 Nov. 2016; European Utility Week in Barcelona, Spain
World Economic Forum – 5 ways we can open up access to electricity in 2016
We are at the start of a power revolution. The coming year presents a number of opportunities to take action to improve global access to electricity.
The world has made great progress over the past several decades. Primary education is becoming almost universal in many regions, child mortality rates have fallen globally, and life expectancy has risen in most countries. To maintain this momentum we need a sustained commitment to invest in infrastructure that provides people access to healthcare, water and most crucially, electricity.
Electrification, a key enabler of this progress — to power hospitals, facilitate studying at night, and run equipment necessary for manufacturing and job creation — is lagging behind. More than one in six people still lack access to electricity and one in three can’t depend on the sources they have. In Africa alone, over 600 million people still lack access to basic electricity and 70 percent of businesses cite unreliable power as a main constraint to doing business on the continent. Moreover, the world’s poorest often pay the most for what little electricity they do get. We can do better.
EU-Commission- Energy efficiency employs nearly 1 million in the EU
Some 900 thousand people were employed in work relating to the supply of energy efficient goods and services in 2010, according to a new study entitled ‘assessing the employment and social impact of energy efficiency’.
The study, published in December 2015, found that the sectors with the greatest levels of energy efficiency jobs were those that produce, or are part of the supply chain for, investment goods. This includes jobs in the manufacturing of the machinery and equipment that enables the production of energy efficient goods, as well as the energy efficient goods themselves.
Looking to the future, the study found that more jobs could be created in the manufacturing and installation of energy efficient products, in particular since it is a relatively labour intensive activity. It also found that opportunities for new jobs are greatest in the buildings and transport sectors.
In the transport sector, the manufacturing of electric or hybrid cars will create jobs and demand for new skills for example in the production of car batteries, specific maintenance skills and emission control engineers. Even more job creation could be linked to the export potential of such cars, the study said.
Dowwnload the report…
US-DOE Announces $220 Million in Grid Modernization Funding
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) built on its Grid Modernization Initiative – an ongoing effort that reflects the Obama Administration’s commitment to improving the resiliency, reliability, and security of the nation’s electricity delivery system. During his visit to a utility control center in Miami, FL today, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced the release of DOE’s comprehensive new Grid Modernization Multi-Year Program Plan, a blueprint for modernizing the grid. The Secretary also announced the award of up to $220 million over three years, subject to congressional appropriations, to DOE’s National Labs and partners to support critical research and development in advanced storage systems, clean energy integration, standards and test procedures, and a number of other key grid modernization areas. Additional programs, initiatives, and funding opportunity announcements related to the Grid Modernization Initiative will be announced in the coming days.
“Modernizing the U.S. electrical grid is essential to reducing carbon emissions, creating safeguards against attacks on our infrastructure, and keeping the lights on,” said Secretary Moniz. “Our Quadrennial Energy Review and Quadrennial Technology Review identified needs and opportunities to invest in the grid. This public-private partnership between our National Laboratories, industry, academia, and state and local government agencies will help us further strengthen our ongoing efforts to improve our electrical infrastructure so that it is prepared to respond to the nation’s energy needs for decades to come.”
EU Commission – invests €217 million in energy infrastructure
Member States agreed on a Commission proposal to invest €217 million in key trans-European energy infrastructure projects.
Member States agreed on a Commission proposal to invest €217 million in key trans-European energy infrastructure projects, mainly in Central and South Eastern Europe. In total, 15 projects were selected following a call for proposals under the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF), an EU funding programme for infrastructure. The selected projects will increase energy security and help end the isolation of Member States from EU-wide energy networks. They will also contribute to the completion of a European energy market and the integration of renewables into the electricity grid.
The European Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy Miguel Arias Cañete said: “Today, we are targeting those regions in Europe which need it the most. With this funding we will help secure supplies and fully integrate Europe’s energy market by connecting networks across Europe. We must press ahead with the modernisation of our energy networks to bring any country still isolated into the European energy market. Modern energy networks are also crucial to ensuring efficient use of our energy resources and therefore key to reaching our climate goals.”
DECC – Quantitative research into public awareness, attitudes, and experience of Smart Meters: Waves 1-4 underlying dataset and technical note
The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) commissioned Ipsos MORI to undertake four nationally-representative surveys to measure the public’s views on smart meters and in-home displays (IHDs) between April 2012 and October 2013.
This technical note accompanies the full survey dataset and includes a brief description of measures taken to anonymise results and metadata to support analysis. A summary of the results of all four waves is available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/quantitative-research-into-public-awareness- attitudes-and-experience-of-smart-meters
Methodology and sampling
The surveys were conducted in April 2012, October 2012, April/May 2013 and September/October 2013. All four waves were conducted on Ipsos MORI’s weekly omnibus Capibus which is carried out in-home using face-to-face interviewers. Wave 1 comprised 2,396 interviews; Wave 2 comprised 2,159 interviews; Wave 3 comprised 2,210; and Wave 4 comprised 2,333 interviews.
Capibus provides a high quality sample of respondents representative of the population at a national and regional level. Respondents for all four waves of the smart meters survey were aged 18+ and at least jointly responsible for paying their household energy bills to ensure that the survey findings reflected the views of adult energy bill payers.
Capibus uses a two stage random location design to select respondents to take part in the weekly survey.
Read more and download the reports…
Eurlectric – Report “Mitigating credit risk in the interest of electricity consumers”
- – In most countries with a single bill model, suppliers have to pay transmission and distribution charges to network operators irrespective of whether customers pay their energy bills or not. France is the only exception to this rule as suppliers pay grid fees ex-ante but can claim them back when bills are not paid.
- – As for taxes and levies, suppliers have to pay them to national authorities, except – under well-defined circumstances – for VAT in a few countries (Luxembourg, Belgium and France) and for all taxes in the Netherlands.
- – The conditions under which a supplier is entitled to stop supplying a customer with large arrears differ significantly between Member States, especially in terms of process length, e.g. 1 month in Austria, 45 days in Poland, 2 months in Hungary. In some cases, disconnection is not possible at all, e.g. in Belgium (Brussels region) and France. Customers defined as vulnerable can generally not be disconnected.
- – In most EU countries, some kinds of credit information registers exist. A few countries (e.g. Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Norway and Spain) have a centralised database.
- – Suppliers are entitled to install prepayment meters (PPM) to customers with arrears only in a few countries such as Austria, Belgium (Wallonia), Hungary, Ireland, Poland and Great- Britain. Some other countries (e.g. France, Spain) made some trials with PPM which were not really conclusive.
- – In most countries, suppliers are entitled – under well-defined circumstances – to ask for guarantee deposits to those customers with a bad credit history. In a few countries such as Belgium this is not allowed and in Poland suppliers can ask deposits to commercial customers only.
- – In most countries, suppliers are entitled to charge an interest rate on outstanding debt at credit recovery. This is not possible in Austria, Ireland, Spain (for customers still supplied from the regulated market) and Great-Britain.
- – In most countries, the arrears a customer accumulated with a supplier will remain with that given supplier if the customer switches to another one. A noteworthy exception is Italy where part of the arrears will move to the new supplier (so-called ‘Indemnity System’). Also, in Great-Britain (‘Debt Assignment Protocol’) and in Ireland (to be implemented), the arrears of a PPM customer are transferred to the new supplier in case of switch.
- – In most countries, the new supplier is not entitled to charge a customer for the arrears accumulated with the old supplier. This is however possible in Italy and in Great-Britain where the new supplier buys the debt from the old supplier for 90% of the transferred debt’s amount.
- – In most countries, a customer who accumulated arrears with a given supplier can switch to another supplier, leaving the arrears behind. Only in Great-Britain and in Bulgaria (until the customer signs a payment deferral protocol), a supplier can object to a customer switching away from them if they are currently in debt.
- – In most countries, suppliers propose debt recovery programs to customers who struggle with the payment of their bills – e.g. payment deferral. This is also a way to prevent disconnection.
- – In most EU countries, specific treatments exist for vulnerable customers. Some Member States do not yet have a definition for vulnerable customers, which does not mean that specific measures do not exist for “protected” customers (e.g. Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden).
Ofgem publishes latest quarterly data monitoring how the energy market works
Ofgem has today published its latest indicators to monitor trends in the retail and wholesale markets which we update every quarter. They cover everything from the price of energy tariffs to how we source our energy and they are part of our work to boost transparency in the market for consumers and stakeholders.
The indicators are interactive, allowing users to refine and expand selected information to provide an even more in-depth understanding of the market.
IEA – Making the energy sector more resilient to climate change
The energy sector faces multiple threats from climate change, in particular from extreme weather events and increasing stress on water resources. Greater resilience to climate change impacts will be essential to the technical viability of the energy sector and its ability to cost-effectively meet the rising energy demands driven by global economic and population growth.
Energy sector stakeholders, including governments, regulators, utilities/energy companies and financial institutions (banks, insurers, investors), will need to define climate change resilience and adaptation challenges and identify actions needed to address these challenges.
Download the report…
US-DOE – Energy Sector Cybercecurity framework implementation guidance
The US Energy Department released guidance to help the energy sector establish or align existing cybersecurity risk management programs to meet the objectives of the Cybersecurity Framework released by the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) in February 2014. The voluntary Cybersecurity Framework consists of standards, guidelines, and practices to promote the protection of critical infrastructure and was developed in response to Executive Order 13636 “Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity” through collaboration between industry and government. In developing this guidance, the Energy Department collaborated with private sector stakeholders through the Electricity Subsector Coordinating Council and the Oil & Natural Gas Subsector Coordinating Council. The Department also coordinated with other Sector Specific Agency representatives and interested government stakeholders.
Downlad the report…
EDSO – Vision for a “Digital DSO”
- the evaluation and the review of the regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services;
- the regulatory environment for platforms, online intermediaries, data and cloud computing and the collaborative economy;
- standards in the Digital Single Market.
“Our members are fully committed to this important transformation and fully engaged in shaping the regulation – at EU- and national-level — that will enable it,” said Ana Aguado, EDSO Secretary General.
Read more and download the paper…
Agora-Energiewende – The Agorameter
German current and historical charts concerning the production of electricity generated from conventional and renewable energy, exchange market prices as wellas electricity trade between Germany and its neighbour counties.
See the Agorameter…
EU-JRC – Europe’s summer temperatures in recent years: the highest of past two millennia
Summer temperatures over the past 30 years lie outside the range of natural variations. Some of the summer temperatures in this century across much of Europe are likely to have been the warmest of the past 2 000 years, according to a study published today in Environmental Research Letters. The research is a joint effort of a group of 45 scientists from 13 countries, including a JRC expert. They used tree-ring information and historical documentary evidence to reconstruct European summer temperatures from 138 Before Common Era (BCE) to date. The new evidence provided in this study will help to better understand the climate system, its variability and extremes, and to put recent climate change into a long-term perspective.
Read more and download the study…